Paris, city of revolutions, just experienced “the most beautiful and most peaceful revolutions,” said President Francois Hollande Saturday night after nearly two weeks of intense negotiations, 195 states agreed without objection a “historic agreement “on reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), after the UN Conference on climate change, COP21.
This is the first time that all countries agree on the issue, while for over 20 years, the UN tries indeed to convince them to work together to reduce emissions that contribute to global warming, according to the scientific consensus.
>>> The text of the final agreement Canada was quickly welcomed the adoption of the agreement. Through his Twitter account, the Canadian Foreign Minister, Stéphane Dion, said he was “particularly pleased that ambitious targets included in this agreement.”
“Yes, Dec. 12 remains a great date for the planet, said Mr. Holland to the final plenary on Saturday night after the adoption of the text. In Paris, there are many revolutions for centuries, but today is the most beautiful and most peaceful revolutions, the revolution for climate change. Long live the United Nations! Long live the planet! Long live France! ”
The agreement represents a coup for the Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius, who chaired the Conference.
To everyone’s surprise, at the beginning of a plenary awaited since the beginning of the day and still tarried yet to set in motion, Mr Fabius, invited the COP21 to adopt the document, quite banal and no objection . He has signed his victory before the congregation who then cheered.
“I look at the room, I see that the reaction is positive, I hear no objection. The Paris Agreement is accepted for the climate “, said he had to be buried before the applause.
Shouts and applause resounded throughout the vast hangars Bourget airport which hosts the conference. Even in the vast newsroom, reporters screamed and cheered the announcement of adoption.
This is a great victory for French diplomacy which was desperate to avoid the failure of the previous conference in Copenhagen in demonstrating that multilateral negotiations can work.
The Secretary General of the UN Ban Ki-moon paid tribute to Mr Fabius before the whole assembly of delegates Saturday night.
“This is a monumental success for people and the planet,” he began.
But it is also a victory for Canadian diplomacy of the young Trudeau, who was one of his first laps, which played its part and would mark a break with the previous Harper government hostile to this kind of exercise.
The Environment Minister, Catherine McKenna, was even chosen as facilitator by Laurent Fabius to bring the parties.
Saturday night, shortly after accepting the agreement, while the plenary continued, the spokesman for the minister said she was “over the moon” before the end of this fateful summit.
The 31-page agreement that formally enter into force in 2020 included yet serious pitfalls that led to the making of several drafts.
But on Saturday, a day after the deadline of Friday, as Laurent Fabius Francois Hollande and the Secretary General of the UN, Ban Ki-moon had urged delegates to adopt the agreement, an agreement “historic” in their an agreement last chance, emphasizing the urgency of acting.
In case of failure, “citizens of the world, our children would not understand, and I think they do not forgive,” affirmed Mr. Fabius plenary Saturday.
President Francois Hollande for his part said that “history is there” and had to seize this opportunity.
In the evening after the adoption, even countries such as China and the United States who have been pugnacious negotiators have subsequently praised the agreement. Through the voice of its spokesman in plenary, China said the agreement was “fair and equitable”.
The Secretary of State of the United States, John Kerry was first congratulated France. Then he said that this agreement “will ensure the transition to a clean global economy and prevent the most devastating impacts of climate change.”
Venezuela, an oil producer with obstruction was dreaded, yet has also joined the chorus of praise.
“We will return to Paris full of life and hope, said his representative during the plenary. We are ready to support the agreement and support its responsibilities. ”
The agreement retains the objective of holding well below 2 degrees Celsius increase in average temperature, but also to strive to limit the increase to 1.5 degrees, which “significantly reduces the risk of impacts of climate change, “said Fabius, addressing the delegates in plenary, in the Bourget pregnant.
We must “do everything even to be 1.5 degree, because it is our responsibility, because this is the decisive issue, because a warming that goes beyond could seriously reach balances of the planet “argued shortly after President Francois Hollande, who has put all its weight into the balance to convince the delegates, who plays his prestige and that of his country to avoid a failure.
Canada had also agreed with small island states so that the target of 1.5 degrees is retained.
“The agreement is ambitious, fair, balanced, and reflects the position of the parties, said Mr Fabius. It contains the main advances that many thought they would be impossible to obtain. It is differentiated, just, sustainable, dynamic and balanced legally binding. ”
Throughout these lengthy negotiations, the Canadian Minister Catherine McKenna had also called for a “robust” agreement. Canada just looking for a binding and lasting agreement for all parties, with the legal obligation for each country to submit a target.
Canada also wished to see incorporated into the text concepts such that appropriate accounting of emissions and the rights of indigenous peoples – items that appear elsewhere in the agreement.
The agreement notably provides for a minimum funding of US $ 100 billion per year from developed countries to help poor countries fight against climate change, with the review mechanisms on the rise. A new target figure will be announced before 2025.
The agreement recognizes in particular the concept of climate justice and differentiation, that is to say the financial efforts that rich and poor countries must do to fight against climate change, according to their responsibilities and capabilities.
The text also contains the upward revision of the commitments, that is to say, a five-year cycle still rising from reduction commitments of greenhouse gas in each country.
Ms McKenna had already welcomed “the commitment to progressively increase” this target every five years, and the commitment “to transparency in the reporting process and examination of each country”.
But there is no indication of the date of the first review of country commitments and nothing on the revision of the 2020 effort.