Guerillo become autocrat, Fidel Catro died Friday at the age of 90 years. In 2006, the Lider Maximo had left power to his brother Raul after leading Cuba with an iron fist for more than fifty years. Back on one of the last giants of the twentieth century.
Historical figure of the Cuban Revolution, Fidel Castro, who led the island with an iron fist for more than half a century, died Friday night in 90 years. “The Commander in Chief of the Cuban Revolution died at 10:29 p.m. tonight ” (3:29 universal time Saturday), announced his brother Raul Castro succeeded him as head of the country in 2006. ” in accordance with the will expressed by comrade Fidel, his remains will be cremated in the early hours ” the day of Saturday, he said.
Fidel Castro had abandoned in April 2011, his last official responsibilities, yielding his position as first secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba (PCC) Raul, number two of the party since its foundation in 1965. Her death, which comes just two years after the historic announcement of the merger between Cuba and the United States finally come to turn the page of the cold war, which led the world to the brink of nuclear war during the crisis of October 1962 missiles .
Famous for his strokes of brilliance and endless speeches, but also for his olive green uniform, his cigars and his legendary beard, Fidel Castro was a symbol of the struggle against “US imperialism”, while showing himself a poor record on civil rights and freedoms. It will have defied eleven American presidents and survived many plots to assassinate him (a record 638 according to the Guinness Book of Records) as well as a failed attempt of Cuban exiles landing CIA-backed Bay of Pigs ( south of the island) in April 1961. Back on the historical course of a guerillo become autocrat .
The conquest of power
Born in 1926, son of a big landowner of Spanish origin, Fidel Castro became Doctor of Law in 1950, he began a career as a lawyer and political opponent. In 1953, ente unsuccessfully to seize the Moncada barracks in Santiago (is) with a hundred insurgents. Sentenced to 15 years in prison and pardoned two years later, he moved with his brother Raul in Mexico where he met Ernesto “Che” Guevara .
In 1956, Fidel Castro landed with 81 militants in the south of the island. Only fifteen guerrillas survive and take refuge in the hills of the Sierra Maestra. Six months later, they are one hundred and gaining ground with the help of a relentless urban bustle. January 8, 1959, he made a triumphal entry at the head of his “bearded” in Havana, after 25 months of guerrilla warfare against the regime of Fulgencio Batista.
At the heart of the Cold War
In 1961, the United States sever diplomatic relations shortly before the failed attempt of anti-Castro landing supported by Washington in the Bay of Pigs (Playa Giron). Castro proclaimed the socialist character of the Revolution. In 1962, Kennedy decreed the embargo against Cuba on 13 February. In October, the missile crisis, after the installation of Soviet nuclear missiles in Cuba, puts the world to the brink of a nuclear conflict. Washington decides a naval blockade of the island. Moscow withdrew its missiles against the American promise not to invade the island.
This opposition to the American superpower and the socialist revolution then creates a certain fascination and the regime then claims to have eradicated illiteracy and set up an efficient and accessible health system to the 11.1 million inhabitants of the island. A rare achievement for a poor Latin American countries.
economic hardship and repression
In 1989, Fidel Castro arrested General Arnaldo Ochoa, hero of the war in Angola (1975). This was shot on July 13, causing a strong emotion of the population and permanently affecting his personal prestige. The following year, Fidel Castro announced a “special period in peacetime” because of the economic collapse of the country, compounded by the fall of the Soviet Union a year later. Shortages of all kinds, famine, malnutrition … The legalization of the dollar and the opening to tourism allow the regime to survive. In 1973, 75 dissidents were arrested and sentenced to long prison terms, resulting in sanctions of the European Union.
Raul, only to commands
The Cuban ex-president had disappeared Cuban screens between February 2014 and April 2015, which had fueled many rumors about his health. But for a year and a half, although his movement remained limited, he started publishing “Reflections” and had begun to receive at his figures and foreign dignitaries.
Raul, 85 years old since June 3, committed for 10 years a slow process of “défidélisation” plan, defined in April 2011 by the adoption at a historic Congress of the CCP to a set of economic measures to save Cuba from bankruptcy. He also orchestrated in the shadows a historic rapprochement announced mid-December with the United States, revealing a pragmatism that contrasts with the visceral anti-Americanism of his elder.
Fidel Castro, said the “Lider Maximo” has always kept secret his private life. His companion Dalia Soto del Valle, who shared his life since the 1960s and gave him five son should attend the funeral of one who has had at least three other children – a girl living in Miami – with three other women.