As the “mushroom killer” can change the fate of Nations
Around us all the time fly a lot dispute. Photo: Alexey of damask steels
And they influence world politics and economy.
“Attack of the killer mushroom” – it sounds like a horror-Comedy. Nevertheless, the danger from this vast Kingdom of living organisms do not underestimate.
December 20, 2009 Hollywood actress Brittany Murphy, known for the films “the Eighth mile” and “sin City”, was found unconscious in her house, in the bathroom. In the hospital she died. The cause of death was called pneumonia on a background of iron-deficiency anemia. Now, farewell. And six months later, Brittany’s husband was found dead in the same house. Cause: pneumonia and iron deficiency anemia. And still really not understand how this could happen; but one of the most popular versions – that the house is infested with toxic mold, and both husband and wife had long breathed its spores.
How mushrooms can quietly to kill us, we talk with mycologist Michael VISHNEVSKY.
We live in a cloud of spores
– If you really mold killed Brittany Murphy and her husband, this is not surprising. Several decades ago, humanity went to war with mushrooms, and now, unfortunately, is rapidly losing on all fronts.
It all started with Alexander Fleming, who created, by the way, on the basis of the fungi penicillum, the antibiotic penicillin. During the Second world war, its importance is difficult to overestimate – the cure has saved millions of lives. And now the antibiotics protect us from the most horrible diseases like the plague. But then began the production of new antibiotics, they were not used in extreme situations and at every step.
And in our bodies for millions of years lived bacteria is antibiotics and destroy. But with these bacteria we have become accustomed to. They though we hurt, but we don’t kill themselves because we were used to. And I understand that they benefit such a great nutritional the owner will kill him, and she where to go? This evolution worked out the logic. From these we weak harmful bacteria is good: they keep a lot of competitors – other micro-organisms that will happily take their place, first and foremost, pathogenic yeast and mold fungi.
– Where you can pick up these mushrooms?
Everywhere. The city, especially large – solid broth, we are now in the middle of it, billions of spores are everywhere around us, and we inhaled them. Source large-scale production, municipal landfills, shops, basements, storage… This cloud hangs continuously and does not settle even in winter: dumps a warm, self-heating, and this is enough to support spore cloud over the city constantly. Of course, the subzero temperature inhibits the development of fungi, ventilate the room is good, but even here there are nuances. For example, if you in early spring open to ventilate the window, and on the street – dry dirt, dust in the wind rises and penetrates into your Windows. And, with it, the mushroom spores, which are Allergy, asthma, and other “pleasures”…
About the harm of air conditioners
In the light of the innumerable species of fungi. Of them are really dangerous pathogens recognized by 800, and this number is growing. The body of fungi is constantly struggling, but he’s hampered by the fact that we all have now to varying degrees, the immuno-compromised because of the antibiotics and cytostatic agents including.
Wallpapers overgrown with Aspergillus and Penicillium – the source of constant Allergy you and the children. Unfortunately, many neglect the basic rules, so, for example, the drivers of garbage trucks, forget about gauze bandages, natural disease and allergic pulmonary aspergillosis.
And air purifiers in homes will not help?
– If they are not the most modern sense, that is, on the contrary, hubs argument. A great number of cases the mass of an Allergy in the offices – due to the fact that there are old models of air conditioners that accumulate and spread.
Corrode the stones and cement
Mushrooms have the perfect device invasion in our body. They live in the form of threads, and this allows them to create any structure due to the weave and hardening in certain places. Anywhere on the skin or on the mucous membrane, in the lungs or in the stomach… And the mushrooms have a set of enzymes that allows them to digest almost anything you want. Some species of fungi isolated lichen acids that dissolve the stones and cement – that collapsed some of the cathedrals and of the old count’s castles in France. Mushrooms are almost exclusive recovery of lignin, the main solid wood. And if they do not, then fallen trunks, branches and leaves buried the trees to the tops in about 20 years.
– You once said that mushrooms can cause mass migration of people.
– With the mass relocation case so far, fortunately, only one. By the mid-nineteenth century the potato became the main food for most peasants in Europe. In Ireland, which was then a very poor country, the population was 8 million people. And here in 1842 – 1843 years, the mass lesions of potato late blight. In 1845-m for a few months she took over the whole of Ireland. 90 – 95% of the crop was destroyed, and in 1846 the population of Ireland decreased by one million due to mass starvation. Another half a million, being extremely exhausted, died of various opportunistic diseases. And since 1846 in Ireland there was a mass emigration. People fled to the United States – and now there are a lot of Irish bartenders, mailmen, police officers… Even the Kennedys, the descendants of those starving Irish people who were expelled Phytophthora his island.
But economic disasters are countless. Ceylon was once glorious is not tea, but coffee. For decades the East India company were transported across Europe 50 thousand tons per year. But on the plantation was attacked by a fungus known as coffee rust, and coffee was completely destroyed. The British had quickly planted the tea plantation, making of Ceylon tea and has become known around the world! And this is nonsense: during the Second world war in Bengal a fungus called “Helminthosporium” completely destroyed the rice harvest, the population were dying of hunger, refugees rushed towards Calcutta, and on the roads, as then calculated, it was found more than 2 million people.
“Drunk bread” and the danger of
– And, of course, they are parasitic on plants. Many people know about ergot is also a fungus that grows on ears. If your grain gets to the bread, ate it man seriously ill.
– The disease called “ergotism,” or “gangrene”, she raged for millennia. Now ergot is still there, although cases of infection are rare. And lately here and there began to appear reports of “drunken bread”. The person who ate the wheat bread, the sick Fusarium, begins to behave as strongly drunk – staggering, laughing, singing… It’s symptoms of severe alcohol poisoning.
What if the cow will eat the infected wheat, the poison will go into her and I drink her milk – poison go to me?
– Yes, but in any enterprise and bread and all meat and dairy products, and poultry, eggs, and so undergo a mandatory three-step test for the presence of mycotoxins. And if they are identified, any products of this kind is subject to total destruction. At the time, a huge number of medicinal herbs from India were destroyed because they found aflatoxin. Rather dangerous products which are now considered the best – all sorts of farm “bio”, “eco”, organic and so on products. No, if the farmer does everything right, his product is also being tested. But if in private – to the nearest farm market, contaminated food may come without any checks. And the farmer will praise as “healthy” and “without chemicals”…
Bitter peanut – probably poisonous
– How to determine the presence of fungi-toxins in the product?
– Here you, for example, eating peanuts from a bag. If you got a bitter taste of the nut, is practically a guarantee that there are mycotoxins. Then you spit out the hard, quickly rinse your mouth and throw the entire bag. And so with all the nuts, including walnuts. Any oilseed crops – that is, everything that contains a lot of oil, pumpkin, sunflower and other seeds, any nuts, olives, corn – this is a favorite substrate for the fungi that secrete mycotoxins.
– If a person sees the cheese mold, he usually cuts the piece with the mold, and the rest quietly eats.
Yes, Yes, and if the jar of jam mold formed above, many Housewives pick this layer with a spoon, and the rest drink tea… In fact, mold is only the visible part of the fungus. Just as the orange-cap boletus – just the visible part of the mushroom is the fruit, like an Apple on the Apple tree, while the mycelium itself is hiding in the ground. Or – in the case of mold on cheese – in the cheese. He’s probably riddled with fungus through; even if not through, the mycotoxins in it already, and have to throw it away. We have, unfortunately, is another story: of a plastic box of strawberries, some berries turned out to be half in the grey mould – they are not something that is not thrown away, and the halves cut half his left. But all this cutting just leads to the fact that children you are gradually becoming more likely to hurt you all with great difficulty up in the morning to work, and after a few years as if on level ground, there are serious chronic illnesses… All of this, however, does not apply to cheeses such as Roquefort or Gorgonzola, and the mold contained in them, mycotoxins are released. This is a special mutant strains, once found in the nature of those cheese many centuries ago, was first created.